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Whoosh [hwoosh, hwoosh, woosh, woosh] noun 1. a loud, rushing noise, as of air or water: a great whoosh as the door opened. verb (used without object) 2. to move swiftly with a gushing or hissing noise: gusts of wind whooshing through the trees. verb (used with object) 3. to move (an object, a person, etc.) with a whooshing motion or sound: The storm whooshed the waves over the road. Also, woosh. Origin: 1840-1850; imit.

Pulsatile tinnitus is not tinnitus.
Pulsatile tinnitus is a rhythmical noise that is synchronous with the patient's heartbeat.

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Pulsatile Tinnitus is Not Tinnitus - We Need a Pulsatile Tinnitus Diagnosis Code (ICD-10-CM)

Today, there is a single diagnosis code for sufferers of regular tinnitus and pulsatile tinnitus.  The symptoms are very differerent.  Pulsatile tinnitus is much more rare - and potentially more dangerous - than its counterpart.  The distinctions are not subtle.  Whooshers are petitioning the following organizations for a unique diagnosis code for pulsatile tinnitus, so that our symptom may be addressed more appropriately and urgently by medical communities everywhere.

  • World Health Organization
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services
  • The National Center for Health Statistics
  • American Health Information Management Association
  • The American Hospital Association


Click here to download and read, "Top Ten Pulsatile Tinnitus Tips," a two-page document about pulsatile tinnitus, written by doctors, for doctors.  

More info: 

Simply: Pulsatile tinnitus - or pulse-synchronous tinnitus - is not the same symptom as the regular, more common form of tinnitus. The differential diagnosis of pulsatile tinnitus is very different from - and much more rare than - its nonpulsatile counterpart.  Its medical workup is different as well.  There is a ripe opportunity to address these diagnostic classifications now, as the ICD-10-CM modifications are being developed for implementation in the United States on October 1, 2014, to replace the current ICD-9-CM.

Unlike tinnitus, the underlying cause of pulsatile tinnitus may often be identified and treated. Unlike tinnitus, pulsatile tinnitus may sometimes be cured. More than half of people with pulsatile tinnitus have an identifiable cause.  Pulsatile tinnitus may be the sole symptom of a potentially dangerous condition. Patients with pulsatile tinnitus may not need to "live with it." Indeed, in rare cases, it is the sole symptom of a potentially life-threatening condition that warrants prompt treatment.

In every case, pulsatile tinnitus warrants a thorough medical evaluation to look for known, identifiable and treatable causes, and to exclude the possibility of a worrisome problem. For these reasons, it is especially important for doctors to know how to recognize a patient who is experiencing pulsatile tinnitus, and to adequately distinguish and evaluate the patient’s symptoms, while also acknowledging the effects that such a symptom may have on a patient’s quality of life.

Unlike tinnitus, pulsatile tinnitus is rarely described as "ringing in the ears." Pulsatile tinnitus may sound like a whooshing, swooshing, screeching, creaking, clicking or other rhythmic sound. The key that distinguishes the sound from “regular” tinnitus is that it is a pulsing sound that is in sync with the heart rate.

Without a diagnosis code, patients with pulsatile tinnitus are being improperly classified as part of the larger tinnitus community, with whom they share few medical similarities, resulting in unnecessarily inadequate medical attention, diagnoses, and treatments. A unique diagnosis code would appropriately address this subset of the tinnitus community, for whom relatively little research and medical advocacy has been devoted. 

Further, because the current ICD-9-CM 388.30 for "Tinnitus" includes the word "pulsations," many pulsatile tinnitus patients have been told (mistakenly) by their medical professionals that they are suffering from "tinnitus," another symptom altogether.  ICD-9-CM 388.31 and ICD-9-CM 388.32, for subjective and objective tinnitus respectively, also do not acknowledge the distinctions between tinnitus and pulsatile tinnitus, while pulsatile tinnitus may in fact be subjective or objective.  In some cases, medical insurance companies - not realizing and/or acknowledging the significance of the difference between the two symptoms - do not accept claims for extensive diagnostic testing for a patient who is experiencing pulsatile tinnitus, because "tinnitus" is such a common symptom with no known cure.  The consequences of this to a pulsatile tinnitus patient, unnecessary at the very least, have the potential to be devastating. 

A diagnosis code for pulsatile tinnitus would convey the crucial distinctions from regular tinnitus and increase awareness within the medical community of a complex symptom that warrants special evaluation.  A diagnosis code for pulsatile tinnitus would also begin to address the symptom experienced by a worldwide community of "whooshers," many of whom are suffering unnecessarily by virtue of being misclassified - misdiagnosed - as "tinnitus" sufferers.

Create an ICD for "Pulsatile Tinnitus," and modify ICD-9-CM 388.30, the diagnosis code for "Tinnitus," by removing the word "pulsations" from the description.

It should be noted that the following proposed changes (ICD-10) to be implemented in the United States in October 2014 also do not distinguish pulsatile tinnitus from tinnitus.  Also, since pulsatile tinnitus is typically related to some kind of vascular process rather than an implication of the ear apparatus itself, these proposed codes that refer to the "ear" are even more inappropriate than the general codes in ICD-9 as categories of pulsatile tinnitus.  For the foregoing reasons, we propose the creation of respective and separate "Pulsatile Tinnitus" codes for each, in addition to the modification(s) to the definition of tinnitus, so that descriptions of tinnitus sounds are not confused with the distinctive sounds of pulsatile tinnitus.

H93.1 Tinnitus

H93.11 Tinnitus, right ear (ICD-9 Codes 388.30, 388.31, 388.32)

H93.12 Tinnitus, left ear (ICD-9 Codes 388.30, 388.31, 388.32)

H93.13 Tinnitus, bilateral (ICD-9 Codes 388.30, 388.31, 388.32)

H93.19  Tinnitus, unspecified ear

Emma Greenwood
Mon, May 28, 2012 | link          Comments

Poll Results: Do Seasonal Weather Changes Affect Your Whoosh?

Yes:  19 votes 18.63%

No:  42 votes 41.18%

Sometimes:  6 votes 5.18%

I don't know:  34 votes 33.33%

Other:  1 vote  0.98%

Total Votes: 102

Thanks for participating in this Whooshers.com poll.  See this and many, many other polls from the past several years on our Poll Results page and let your whoosh be heard by voting in the lastest poll, on our homepage! 

Sat, May 26, 2012 | link          Comments

Another Cured Whoosher Story: Fibromuscular Dysplasia and Cavernous Sinus Arteriovenous Fistula
Below is a story written by another Cured Whoosher.  Her diagnosis was Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) and Cavernous Sinus Arteriovenous Fistula.  Her story is yet another example of the complexities often discovered in our cases.  Thanks for sharing your story and enjoy the silence!

I am a recently cured Whoosher, and I would like to post my story so that it may help others. I found your site to be very helpful to me, and it is my hope that what the doctors found for me may give others some help as they seek the reason(s) behind the terrible noises in their head.
Here is my story:

My husband and I are in our late 50's, retired, and were touring Ireland, when on February 24th at 3am I experienced what I thought was the worst migraine of my life. The pain on the left side of my head was incredibly intense. Within hours I began to suffer from pulsatile tinnitus, and my left eye began to turn inwards, and I could only see double looking through both eyes.
The ophthalmologist diagnosed me with Sixth Nerve Palsy, and the neurologist and the first MRI of my head could find no reason behind the pulsatile tinnitus and the Sixth Nerve Palsy. Normally these happen to people with high blood pressure, diabetes or head trauma. I suffered from none of those. I was told that "hopefully" it will all right itself within a couple weeks or a couple months. My pulsatile tinnitus was also a bruit, so the doctors could hear it with a stethoscope.

My neurologist ordered another MRI two weeks later to be sure nothing was developing. Luckily, the person who read that MRI found a cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistula, and I was sent to a hospital in Milwaukee which is the only place near us that would be able to help me. Fortunately, we have such a facility close to my home. I was sent to a doctor at Froedtert Hospital and The Medical College of Wisconsin by the name of Dr. Osama Zaidat.
When I took the MRI films to Dr. Zaidat, I learned that it was very unusual to find a cavernous sinus arteriovenus fistula on an MRI, especially since mine was not presenting in the usual manner, which is that the leaking blood affects the eye on that side, and the eye often bulges and becomes very red. The blood leaking from the fistula in my case was going down the back and not to the front behind my eye, making this diagnosis more difficult. This was just another one of the fortunate aspects of my case, that the MRI technician found the fistula on the MRI.

In addition, the doctors have diagnosed me with Fibromusuclar Dysplasia (FMD), a disease that causes one or more arteries in the body to have abnormal cell development in the artery wall. As a result, areas of narrowing (called stenosis), aneurysms, or tears (called dissections) may occur.  If narrowing or a tear causes a decrease in blood flow through the artery, symptoms may result. Many people with FMD do not have any symptoms or signs on physical examination and are diagnosed by accident during a radiology scan for another problem. (Thus, it was a brain aneurysm that caused the fistula and all the maddening, non-stop noises on the left side of my head.)

Knowing this, my doctors are ordering angiograms to look at the right side of my head to see if there are arteries that may have a problem there as well. I am still suffering from the Sixth Nerve Palsy; however, my eye does seem to be getting better, and I am hoping that it will soon track the same as the right eye, and my double vision will be cured as well.

Dr Zaidat and his team then did a brain embolization on me on April 4th. They tried a new technique using flexible metal stents that telescope into the artery. Unfortunately, that only stopped the fistula flow by about 20%, and I awoke with no change in the pusatile tinnitus. Just this past week, on May 2nd, I went into surgery again. This time they attempted to go through the groin again up the venous side, but they ran into problems (I assume because of the FMD) and wound up going from the right side of my brain to the left to the place of the aneurysm. I was in surgery for about five hours. There they placed two coils and surgical glue which stopped the leak and the fistula. The procedure was 100% successful, and I awoke with no pulsatile tinnitus! It was wonderful!
You asked how I am feeling. The short answer is fabulous. I have no pain and no whooshing and I have every hope that the Sixth Nerve Palsy will correct itself soon as there has been improvement since Feb 24th. I "only" suffered from the pulsatile tinnitus for about nine weeks before they were able to cure me.
I have been very, very fortunate. Although I am still dealing with the Sixth Nerve Palsy, I am so grateful for the care I received by such a great medical team.  I have stopped and thought very, very often during these past four days that there is amazingly no noise in my left ear to contend with anymore, and I am so grateful for that. I am especially grateful at night as that was the worst time when all is quiet and the noises seemed to increase in volume and variety!
While all of this is pretty scary for a person who considers herself in excellent health, there is a bit of comfort in the doctors finding out what was wrong with me, being able to fix it for me, and having a name for it.  Again, it is my hope that other people will benefit from my experience in that if their symptoms mirror mine, they may have suggestions for their doctors for their condition and of course, for ultimately ridding them of their pulsatile tinnitus!


Read this and other cases of cured whooshers on the ever-growing and always inspiring Cured Whooshers page.  

Sun, May 6, 2012 | link          Comments

Real Pulsatile Tinnitus Sounds From Real Whooshers

In the last year or two, with the help of iPhones and similar devices with recording functions, many whooshers have recorded their whooshes and sent them in to me.  How neat!  We already have a page with sounds similar to whooshing sounds that I encourage everyone to explore, but I'm going to be posting more of these sound files as they come in. 

I've added the REAL whooshing sound files to the Pulsatile Tinnitus Sounds page, along with brief stories the whooshers sent with them.  

As a reminder, pulsatile tinnitus can be objective (others can hear it) or subjective (only the patient can hear it).  Obviously, these files are recorded by folks with objective pulsatile tinnitus.  But, I wonder, of those people diagnosed with subjective pulsatile tinnitus, how many actually have objective pulsatile tinnitus?  Sometimes the sound can be difficult to listen to, even with a stethoscope.  Mine is objective and can be heard by others without a stethoscope, however some doctors have had difficulty hearing it with a stethoscope.  Interestingly, I haven't been able to record mine - yet.  Still trying!

Some time ago, we explored an iPhone app that might assist in recording the heartbeat sound.  There are many other applications that Whooshers have used to successfully record their whooshes; some of them are described under the REAL whooshers' audio files. 

I'm compiling more, so if you are able to record your whoosh and/or are willing to share the audio file with Whooshers.com and let me know the program you used to record it, please email me at whooshers@gmail.com.  If you're a whoosher, you may like to play these files for your family, friends and doctors, so they can hear a hint of what whooshing sounds like!  More than simply entertaining, these audio files may include clues for our doctors as to the source of the pulsatile tinnitus.  Doctors, have a listen!



Sun, May 6, 2012 | link          Comments

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulsatile Tinnitus, Dr. Maksim Shapiro, NYU Neurointerventional Radiology Section, NYU Langone Medical Center - neuroangio.org

Radiation Dose Chart - American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Resources Page: Click here for an interactive dose chart for various medical diagnostic tests. A downloadable and printable version is also available on this page. Discuss with your doctors.

Find a Neurotologist: American Neurotological Society (ANS) Membership Roster

Find a Neurointervention Specialist: Society of Neurointerventional Surgery (SNIS)- Click on "Doctor Finder"

Find a Neuro-Ophthalmologist: The North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS)

Site: Neuroangio.org - Your neurovascular education and information resource. Patient Information.

UCSF Pulsatile Tinnitus Clinic

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Differential Diagnosis and Radiological Work-Up," Sjoert A. H. Pegge, Stefan C. A. Steens, Henricus P. M. Kunst, and Frederick J. A. Meijer, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Medical Center Nijmegen, The Netherlands. (SEE TABLE 1).

Presentation: "Algorithm for Evaluation of Rhythmic Tinnitus," Douglas E Mattox, MD, Patricia Hudgins, MD, Jahrsdoerfer Lecture, University of Virginia, March 25, 2010. (This link is to the abstract/summary)

Presentation: "Imaging of the Patient with Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Dec 2013. (NEW! Mentions Pulsatile Tinnitus and Whooshers.com. Republished with Permission.)

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus: Diagnostic Pearls and Potential Pitfalls," B. S. Purohit, R. Hermans, K. Op de beeck; 1SINGAPORE/SG, 2Leuven/BE, European Society of Radiology, 2014.

Article: "Imaging In Pulsatile Tinnitus : When Should It Ring A Bell?" G. Bathla1, V. Chong; 1singapore/SG, 2Singapore/SG, European Society of Radiology, 2012."

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Contemporary Assessment and Management," Aristides Sismanis, Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery: October 2011 - Volume 19 - Issue 5 - p 348357 doi: 10.1097/MOO.0b013e3283493fd8, Otology and neuro-otology: Edited by Myles L. Pensak.

NEW Article: "Emergence of Venous Stenosis as the Dominant Cause of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Eytan RazErez NossekDaniel Jethanamest, Vinayak Narayan, Aryan Ali, Vera Sharashidze, Tibor Becske, Peter K. Nelson, Maksim Shapiro, Originally published8 May 2022 https://doi.org/10.1161/SVIN.121.000154, American Heart Association Journal - Stroke: Vascular and Interventional Neurology. 2022;0:e000154

Article: "Temporal Bone: Vascular Tinnitus," William W.M. Lo and M. Marcel Maya, Vascular, pp.1361-1374, 2003.

Article: "Diagnostic Clues in Pulsatile Tinnitus (Somatosounds)," Carlos Herraiza and José Miguel Aparicioa, Unidad de Acúfenos; Instituto ORL Antolí-Candela, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Otorrinolaringología, Fundación Hospital Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain; Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Quirón, Madrid, Spain, Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2007;58(9):426-33. This is a link to the article abstract.

Article: "How I Struggled with (PULSATILE) Tinnitus," The Story of Actor Graham Cole, Daily Mail Online, January 10, 2007.

Article: "I Got Lifesaving OP for Whooshing Thanks to US Help," David Powell, Daily Post UK, DPW West, Feb 19, 2013.

Article: "Vital Signs: An Unwelcome Ringing," by Dr. Christopher Linstrom, Discover Magazine, April 2010. (About a cured patient with pulsatile tinnitus symptoms!)

Article: "Tinnitus Highlights Poor Doctor Patient Communication," Martin Young, MBChB, FCS(SA), Diagnosis and Treatment, KevinMd.Com, November 2010.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: Recent Advances in Diagnosis," Aristides Sismanis MD, Wendy R. K. Smoker, MD, The Laryngoscope, Volume 104, Issue 6, pages 681-688, June 1994. ABSTRACT (Summary)

Article: "Neuroradiologic Assessment of Pulsatile Tinnitus," Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL: Dr Kircher and Dr Leonetti; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI: Dr Standring; Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery, Chicago, IL. Sept. 22-24, 2008. (CLICKING THIS LINK WILL DOWNLOAD THE PDF FILE)

Article: "Imaging of Tinnitus: A Review," Jane L. Weissman, MD and Barry E. Hirsch, MD, Radiology, August 2000.

Article: "Imaging in Pulsatile Tinnitus," G. Madania and S.E.J. Connor, Clinical Radiology, Volume 64, Issue 3, Pages 319-328 (March 2009).

Article: "Imaging of the Patient With Tinnitus," Mary Beth Cunnane MD, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, December 31, 2013. (NEW! Mentions Whooshers.com and PULSATILE tinnitus as well.)

Article: "Imaging of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 74 Patients," Guner Sonmez, C Cinar Basekim, Ersin Ozturk, Atilla Gungor, Esref Kizilkaya, Clinical Imaging, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 102-108 (March 2007). (This is an abstract/summary-you have to pay to see the article in its entirety)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Review of 84 Patients," Daniel Waldvogel, Heinrich P. Mattle, Matthias Sturzenegger and Gerhard Schroth, Journal of Neurology, Volume 245, Number 3, 137-142, DOI: 10.1007/s004150050193, November 12, 1997.

Article: "Role of Angiography in the Evaluation of Patients With Pulsatile Tinnitus," Edward J. Shin, MD; Anil K. Lalwani, MD; Christopher F. Dowd, MD, Laryngoscope 110: November 2000. (PDF FILE)

Article: "Angioplasty and Stenting for Intractable Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by Dural Venous Sinus Stenosis: A Case Series Report," Li Baomin, Shi Yongbing, and Cao Xiangyu, Dept of Neurosurgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Otol Neurotol. 35.366-370. Dec 2014.

Article: "CT Angiography as a Screening Tool for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: Feasibility and Test Characteristics," J. Narvid, H.M. Do, N.H. Blevins and N.J. Fishbein, American Journal of Neuroradiology 32:446-453, March 2011.

Article: "Brain Dural Arteriovenous Fistula (BDAVF)," Patient Information, www.NeuroAngio.org

Article: "Usefulness of C-Arm Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in Endovascular Treatment of Traumatic Carotid Cavernous Fistulas: A Technical Case Report," Sato, Kenichi MD, PhD; Matsumoto, Yasushi MD; Kondo, Ryushi MD, PhD; Tominaga, Teiji MD, PhD, Neurosurgery: August 2010 - Volume 67 - Issue 2 - p 467470.

Article (Abstract): "A Convenient Sonographic Technique for Diagnosis of Pulsatile Tinnitus Induced by a High Jugular Bulb," The American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Minoru Nakagawa, MD, Norimitsu Miyachi, MLT and Kenjiro Fujiwara, MD, Department of Neurosurgery (M.N., K.F.) and Clinical Laboratory (N.M.), Kosei General Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan, J Ultrasound Med 27:139-140 0278-4297, 2008.

Article: "Surgical Treatment of the High Jugular Bulb in Patients with Ménières Disease and Pulsatile Tinnitus," V. Couloigner, A. Bozorg Grayeli, D. Bouccara, N. Julien and O. Sterkers, European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Volume 256, Number 5, 224-229, DOI: 10.1007/s004050050146 (ABSTRACT)

Article: "Brain AVM," (arteriovenous malformation), MayoClinic.com

Article: "Chiari Malformation," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Ménière's Disease," National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)

Article: "TMJ Disorders," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Anemia," American Society of Hematology, Hemotology.org

Article: "Pseudotumor Cerebri," (also called Benign Intracranial Hypertension) MayoClinic.com

Article: "Pulse-Synchronous Tinnitus," The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

Article: "Coarctation of the Aorta," MayoClinic.com

Article: "Man Cured of Hearing His Eyeballs Move," www.bbc.co.uk, July 27, 2011. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome (SCDS)

Article: "Diagnosis and Cure of Venous Hum Tinnitus," Laryngoscope, Chandler JR, 93(7):892-5, July 1983.

Article: (Abstract) "Sinus Wall Reconstruction for Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum and Dehiscence: A Standardized Surgical Procedure for a Range of Radiographic Findings," Dr. DJ Eisenman, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Otology Neurotology, 32(7):1116-9; September 2011.

Article: (Abstract) "Awake Embolization of Sigmoid Sinus Diverticulum Causing Pulsatile Tinnitus: Simultaneous Confirmative Diagnosis and Treatment," Park YH, Kwon HJ, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea, Interv Neuroradiol. 2011 Sep;17(3):376-9. Epub 2011 Oct 17. (NEW!)

Article: "A New Therapeutic Procedure for Treatment of Objective Venous Pulsatile Tinnitus," Sanchez TG, Murao M, Medeiros HRT, Kii M, Bento RF, Caldas JG, et al. Int Tinnitus J. 2002;8(1):54-57.

Article: "Glomus Tympanicum," The New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 362:e66, Number 22, June 3, 2010.

Article: "Resolution of Pulsatile Tinnitus Following an Upper Mediastinal Lymph Node Resection," Wang YZ, Boudreaux JP, Campeau RJ, Woltering EA, South Med J. 2010 Apr;103(4):374-7.

Article: (Abstract) "Dissection of the Internal Carotid Artery After SCUBA-Diving: A Case Report and Review of the Literature," Franz Hafner, MD,* Thomas Gary, MD,* Froehlich Harald, MD,* Ernst Pilger,* Reinhard Groell, PD,w and Marianne, Brodmann* "Neurologist. 17(2):79-82, March 2011. (NEW!)

Article: "Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula," Bobby S. Korn, M.D., Ph.D., and Kang Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., N Engl J Med 2011; 364:e15, February, 24, 2011. (WARNING: GRAPHIC IMAGES)

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus Cured by Mastoidectomy," Duvillard C, Ballester M, Redon E, Romanet P., Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Hôpital Général, Dijon, France, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, September 2004.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Symptom of Chronic Subclavian Artery Occlusion," Marcio Francisco Lehmann, Charbel Mounayer, Goetz Benndorf, Michel Piotin, and Jacques Moret, AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 26:19601963, September 2005 (PDF).

Article: "Carotid Endarterectomy Relieves Pulsatile Tinnitus Associated with Severe Ipsilateral Carotid Stenosis," J Kirkby-Bott, H.H Gibbs, European Journal of Vascular & Endovascular Surgery, Volume 27, Issue 6, Pages 651-653, June 2004.

Article: "MR Angiography Imaging of Absence Vertebral Artery Causing of Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Case Report," *Mehmet Cudi Tuncer; **Yekta Helbest Akgül & *Özlen Karabulut,* Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbak¹r, Turkey.** Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Özel Diyarbakr Hospital, 21100, Diyarbakr, Turkey, International Journal of Morphology, v.28 n.2 Temuco Jun. 2010."

Article: "Endovascular Treatment of Sigmoid Sinus Aneurysm Presenting as Devastating Pulsatile Tinnitus. A Case Report and Review of Literature." Mehanna R, Shaltoni H. Morsi H, Mawad M., Interv Neuroradiol. 2010 Dec;16(4):451-4. Epub 2010 Dec 17.

"Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by an Aneurysm of the Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus: A New Case Report and Review of Literature," Lenck S, Mosimann PJ, Labeyrie MA, Houdart E., Department of Neuroradiology, hôpital Lariboisière, 2, rue Ambroise-Paré, 75010 Paris, France, J Neuroradiol. 2012 Oct;39(4):276-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2012.02.001. Epub 2012 Sep 29. (NEW!)

Article: "Intractable Tinnitus and Sensorineural Deafness Cured by Surgical Correction of Coarctation of Aorta," S. Rathinam, A.M. Pettigrew, J.C.S. Pollack, Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 3:431-433 (2004).

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus," Don McFerran FRCS Consultant Otolaryngologist Essex County Hospital, Colchester, British Tinnitus Association, October 2007.

Article: "Pulsatile Tinnitus and Dural Arteriovenous Malformation (Dural AVM)," G. A. J. Morrison, The Journal of Laryngology & Otology (1989), 103:1073-1075 Cambridge University Press (ABSTRACT).

Article: "Medical Mystery: Giving Birth Didn't Ease a Woman's Dangerous Hypertenstion," Sandra G. Boodman, The Washington Post, October 17, 2011.

Article: "That Noise Wasn't Just Tinnitus," Sandra G. Boodman, Special to The Washington Post, July 7, 2009

Article: "What's That Noise In Her?" H. Lee Kagan, Discovery Magazine, January 2006. (About a patient with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and her doctor whose patience and persistence paid off).

Article: "The 'Rare' Disease That Isn't," Thomas M. Burton, The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2009

Article: "Diseases and Conditions/ Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD)," Cleveland Clinic. Lists symptoms, details, treatments, and resources including Whooshers.com.

Article: Unraveling Pulsatile Tinnitus in FMD: A Report of the United States Registry For Fibromuscular Dysplasia."

Video: "A Rare Disease That May Be Underdiagnosed," Thomas M. Burton, June 26, 2009 (Hear an example of a whooshing sound in this short video)

Whooshers.com Pulsatile Tinnitus Sounds (Real Ones Recorded by Real Whooshers!)

Audio: Having trouble describing the sound you hear to others? Listen to this collection of sounds that whoosh and see if you can find a match to yours! Demonstrations: Heart Sounds & Murmurs, from the University of Washington Department of Medicine

Whooshers.com Review: SleepPhones- Soft, comfortable headphones to help mask the whoosh for a good night's sleep.

Replace "ringing" with "whooshing," and here it is: our theme song.